Global phosphine market is segmented on the basis of product type, application and geography.Phosphine (PH3) is also known as hydrogen phosphide with colourless and flammable characteristics. It is an extremely toxic gas with a garlic like odour. Phosphine is formed by the action of a strong base or hot water on white phosphorus or by the reaction of water with calcium phosphide (Ca3P2).
Phosphine is structurally similar to ammonia (NH3), but phosphine is a much poorer solvent than ammonia and is much less soluble in water. Phosphine is a chemical which belongs to the group of organophosphorus compounds. Phosphine obtained by supplying heat to phosphorous in an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate. Chemical formula of this compound is PH3.
The concentration of this compound varies in the atmosphere. It plays a vital role in phosphorous biochemical cycle. PH3 is a trigonal pyramidal molecule. P-H bond length in phosphine is 1.42A and the angle between H-P-H bonds is 93.5º. Phosphine is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed and leaf stored tobacco. Acute (short term) inhalation exposure to phosphine may cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, burning substernal pain, nausea, vomiting, labored breathing, cough, chest tightness, pulmonary irritation, pulmonary edema and tremors in humans.
Convulsions may ensue after an apparent recovery. Chronic (long-term) occupational exposure of workers to phosphine may cause inflammation of the nasal cavity and throat, weakness, dizziness, nausea, gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, and central nervous system symptomology, jaundice, liver effects and increased bone density. On the basis of end-user, the phosphine market is classified into government and research organizations, associations and industrial bodies, traders, distributors and retailers, agriculture & farming industry, phosphine manufacturers and suppliers, regulatory institutions, food safety agencies, pesticide traders/ suppliers, agricultural institutes and universities.
On the basis of product type, the phosphine market is segmented into electronic grade phosphine, technical grade phosphine, magnesium phosphide, aluminum phosphide, calcium phosphide, and so on.“Aluminum phosphide” is the rapidly growing segment, since it is used as a substitute for methyl bromide fumigants and is comparatively cheaper. The demand for “aluminum phosphide” is expected to grow due to the rapidly growing agrochemical industry.
On the basis of application, the phosphine market is segmented into microelectronics, fumigant, organophosphorus chemistry, warehouses, and soil and so on.“Warehouses” segment is expected to grow in the coming years. Warehouses are generally used to store food grains or processed food which is highly susceptible to insect infestations. This is one of the main reasons for the usage of phosphine fumigants which has led to warehouse segments being one of the fastest growing segments in the phosphine market.
On the basis of geography, the phosphine market is segmented into Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, North America and Middle East & Africa.The Europe region is one of the key markets for the phosphine market and its growth is attributed to the growth in the production of cereals and grains in the region with advancements in storage technologies in warehouses and innovations in farming technologies with higher efficiency in terms of application. Countries in this region are focusing on sustainable agriculture to meet the demand for high quality crops.
The key players of phosphine industry are Nippon Chemical Industrial, Air Products, CYTEC SOLVAY GROUP, Pentagon Chemicals, Bhagwati Chemicals, GASCO, BASF Intermediates, Adama Agricultural Solutions Ltd., Rentokil Initial Plc and United Phosphorus Ltd.
Research Support Specialist, USA